Look Mom No Electricity Transmitting Information with Chemistry

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the study, led by George Whitesides of Harvard University, with other coauthors from Harvard, Tufts University, and DARPA, the scientists explain that their system transmits information in the form of coded pulses of light generated entirely by chemical reactions, without electricity. The system is self-powered, with power being generated by combustion. The power density of the system is higher than that of electrochemical batteries, and has the advantage of not discharging over time.As Whitesides explained to PhysOrg.com, the significance of the study is that it “demonstrates direct chemical to binary encoding, and transmission of information at a useful bit rate, without batteries.” The researchers hope that their prototype will one day make it possible to make systems that transmit useful information in circumstances in which electronics and batteries do not work, such as harsh environments and under water.As the scientists explain, the system consists of a strip or fuse of combustible material (nitrocellulose) about 1 mm long. When ignited, a yellow-orange flame moves along the infofuse. To encode information, the scientists patterned the fuse with various metallic salts, which could be done using a desktop inkjet printer or a micropipettor. With their different emission wavelengths, the salts created distinct emission lines in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, similar to how the colors of fireworks are made: blue (copper), green (barium), yellow (sodium), red (lithium, strontium, calcium), or near-infrared (potassium, rubidium, cesium). The infofuse, which burns at about 3-4 cm/sec depending on thickness and pattern spacing, is then read by a detector, such as a color CCD camera or fiber optic cable coupled to a spectrometer. The distance between the detector and burning infofuse was typically 2 m, but the detector could still detect a signal up to 30 m away in daylight. Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — While information technology is generally thought to require electrons or photons for transmitting information, scientists have recently demonstrated a third method of transmission: chemical reactions. Based on a flammable “infofuse,” the new system combines information technology and chemistry into a new area the researchers call “infochemistry.” By coding letters of the alphabet using patterns of metallic salts, the scientists transmitted the phrase, “LOOK MOM NO ELECTRICITY” on a single infofuse using the new technique. As the scientists explain, light pulses have several controllable variables that can be used to represent different letters and symbols. In addition to emission wavelength, other variables include pulse duration, time between pulses, and emission intensity. Using combinations of three alkali metals, the researchers demonstrated how to encode 40 different characters by varying some of these parameters. “It needs a flame, but it does not need additional batteries or power, or auxiliary devices, to convert a chemical signal to a digital one,” Whitesides said. “The power needed to generate the light is produced by chemistry directly, not by drawing power from a battery.”Although the current infofuses convert energy into light with only 1% of the efficiency of a battery-operated LED, the infofuses generate 10 times more energy per weight than an alkaline battery generates. In general, integrating information technology and chemistry could have certain advantages, possibly leading to systems that operate beyond binary schemes by using a variety of parameters that allow each information unit to carry more information than a bit. Also, since infochemistry is not bound by the principles of electronics (such as fixed circuitry), but rather the principles of chemistry, new systems could lead to novel architectures.The scientists hope that further improvements to their system could lead to lightweight, portable, self-powered systems that can transmit information and integrate with modern information technologies. Applications could include environmental sensing and transmitting the data optically over a distance. The system could also be used for message transmission in search-and-rescue type applications.More information: “Infochemistry and infofuses for the chemical storage and transmission of coded information.” Samuel W. Thomas III, et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. vol. 106, no. 23, 9147-9150. Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.center_img Citation: ‘Look Mom No Electricity’: Transmitting Information with Chemistry (2009, June 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-06-mom-electricity-transmitting-chemistry.html New quantum key system combines speed, distance Burning an infofuse transmits a sequence of pulses of light, in which information is encoded using different wavelengths (determined by various metallic salts) and the order of the pattern. Image credit: Samuel W. Thomas III, et al. ©2009 PNAS.last_img read more

Study shows snakes use more force than necessary when climbing trees

first_img © 2014 Phys.org Credit: Western Pacific Tropical Research Center More information: Gripping during climbing of arboreal snakes may be safe but not economical, Biol. Lett. August 2014 vol. 10 no. 8 20140434. Published 20 August 2014 DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0434AbstractOn the steep surfaces that are common in arboreal environments, many types of animals without claws or adhesive structures must use muscular force to generate sufficient normal force to prevent slipping and climb successfully. Unlike many limbed arboreal animals that have discrete gripping regions on the feet, the elongate bodies of snakes allow for considerable modulation of both the size and orientation of the gripping region. We quantified the gripping forces of snakes climbing a vertical cylinder to determine the extent to which their force production favoured economy or safety. Our sample included four boid species and one colubrid. Nearly all of the gripping forces that we observed for each snake exceeded our estimate of the minimum required, and snakes commonly produced more than three times the normal force required to support their body weight. This suggests that a large safety factor to avoid slipping and falling is more important than locomotor economy. Explore further Citation: Study shows snakes use more force than necessary when climbing trees (2014, August 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-08-snakes-climbing-trees.html Climbing trees is no easy feat for those that lack claws or other means of attachment—it generally means using brute force which requires some degree of strength. Humans for example, though well muscled in some respects are not well adapted for climbing tress when there are few or no tree limbs to use for assistance—it requires wrapping arms and legs and feet tightly around a trunk and inching upwards. Snakes use very much the same technique, wrapping their bodies around a tree trunk in a coil, then inching their way up by releasing, moving various parts at the appropriate time and then re-gripping. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about how much effort the snakes put into tree climbing.To find out how tightly snakes must grip to climb, the researchers affixed pressure sensors to a pole, which they then covered with tennis racket tape—the combination provided enough friction for adherence by the snakes. They then coaxed five different snakes into climbing the pole, monitoring their progress as they went—four of the snakes were of the boid (boas) species the other a colubrid (a python).In examining their results, the researchers found that all five snakes clung much tighter to the pole than was necessary to prevent slipping or falling—they suggest this is because the snakes placed more importance on clinging to the tree than they did on conserving energy. What’s interesting is that the snakes had a choice—prior research has shown that climbing snakes have very fine control over the amount of squeezing they exert—and thus they are choosing to squeezer harder than they know they need to—and are doing so despite the fact that a fall from a tree in their native habitat would not likely cause injury. This suggests the added pressure is to ensure they don’t fall when predators are around or because they don’t want to have to climb the tree again.center_img Journal information: Biology Letters (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers, one with Siena College in New York, the other with the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, has found that climbing snakes tend to use much more force to hold onto trees than is needed to keep them from sliding back down. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Greg Byrnes and Bruce Jayne describe how they tested snakes climbing in their lab and what they learned as a result. US wildlife officials propose limiting snake trade This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New Research From Clinical Psychological Science

first_imgMathematically Modeling Emotion Regulation Abnormalities During Psychotic Experiences in SchizophreniaGregory P. Strauss, Farnaz Zamani Esfahlani, Katherine Frost Visser, Elizabeth K. Dickinson, June Gruber, and Hiroki Sayama Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is the statistical procedure commonly used to test the validity of different models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CFA models allow the identification of symptom dimensions (or factors) that characterize PTSD. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), PTSD is characterized by four dimensions (e.g., intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in mood and cognition, and hyperarousal), but since the publication of the DSM–5, CFA models of PTSD have become increasingly multidimensional, identifying six and even seven factors. To clarify why the models of PTSD are becoming increasingly multidimensional, Rasmussen and colleagues examined 23 publications that used CFA and DSM–5symptoms to study PTSD. They found that researchers have been finding support for multidimensionality of PTSD in their CFA analyses mostly because they have not been following basic premises concerning factor identification in CFA. More specifically, the multidimensional models may fit the data, but their factors are underidentified (i.e., composed of fewer than three symptoms) and are correlated with each other, which means they might not be meaningfully distinct. Two positive aspects of the CFA studies examined were that two thirds of them used external data to validate their factors and that most of them relied on large sample sizes. However, the authors suggest the need to improve CFA practices in the PTSD literature, and they offer some practical suggestions about how to do so (e.g., avoid underidentified factors). Thomas and Sharp argue that the dominant approaches to understanding psychological processes, despite helping to elaborate laws between hypothetical psychological constructs and observable data, do not describe links between psychological and biological phenomena or how to integrate them in unified explanations of the psychological constructs. To make up for this shortcoming, they propose the use of mechanistic science. This approach has the goal of explaining how particular psychological phenomena are implemented in living systems, which can be achieved by identifying mechanisms (i.e., structures defined by their component parts, operations, and organization), the functioning of which results in a particular phenomenon. This approach requires that psychological scientists constrain their conceptions of psychological functions to those that might plausibly be implemented by mechanisms in living systems. Thomas and Sharp give the example of biologists applying this approach to move their field from a descriptive to a causal science. They also explain in depth how to apply mechanistic science, giving examples that include a mechanistic explanation of vision processes and a mechanistic framework applied to psychopathology research. The authors suggest that mechanistic science can complement existing research approaches rather than replacing them and that it can facilitate collaboration across fields by providing a common framework for guiding future scientific investigation. Moreover, demonstrating how psychological processes are implemented in biological systems can lead to a better understanding of psychological phenomena and, consequently, more effective interventions in psychopathology. People diagnosed with psychotic disorders often experience symptoms, such as hallucinations or paranoia, that are usually associated with negative emotions that the individuals attempt to manage and regulate. This study examined how individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) regulate emotions during the presence and absence of psychotic symptoms. For 6 days, four times per day, outpatients with SZ received a message on a mobile device and were required to file the survey immediately. In each survey, participants (a) rated the intensity of their current positive and negative emotions; (b) reported how much they were using emotion regulation strategies; (c) provided information about their current whereabouts, activity, and companions; and (d) reported any psychotic symptoms they could be experiencing. When participants were experiencing psychotic symptoms, they rated their emotions as more negative and reported using emotion-regulation strategies; the type of strategy used depended on the symptom and context. However, emotion regulation at one report time did not result in decreased negative emotion in the next report, especially when negative emotion resulted from auditory hallucinations. During psychotic symptoms, emotions were more densely connected to each other, and denser networks of emotions were more difficult to regulate. These results suggest that emotion regulation failures in SZ result from problems in selecting and implementing regulation strategies but not from identifying the emotions, although denser connections among individual emotions may make it particularly difficult to implement regulation strategies effectively. Mechanistic Science: A New Approach to Comprehensive Psychopathology Research That Relates Psychological and Biological PhenomenaJoel G. Thomas and Paul B. Sharp Read about the latest research published in Clinical Psychological Science: When Did Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Get So Many Factors? Confirmatory Factor Models Since DSM–5Andrew Rasmussen, Jay Verkuilen, Nuwan Jayawickreme, Zebing Wu, and Sydne T. McCluskeylast_img read more

Pause a while to play with your imagination

first_imgA solo exhibition Pause and Play, by Puja Kshatriya is all about the inner strength and the complexities and dual nature of relationships. This exhibition is a series comprising of 11 canvases, is an unique interplay of monochromatic figures, emphasising the dual nature and complexities of our relationships. Headless figures, amputated or shifted limbs add an element of surrealism and deconstruction and repetition of images has produced some interesting works. It is almost like looking through a kaleidoscope, where forms join together and then melt away. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting”Strength and power are often wrongly perceived. Those who appear frail, may in fact be resolutely strong. Wars, as it is has been said, are not always won or lost on the battlefield, but often in the mind. This series called Pause and Play explores the power of mind and how we can we achieve inner strength by detaching ourselves,’ said the artist Puja.’There is no single factor that has inspired me to paint this series. I think, as one  evolves and grows spiritually one realises the power of the mind and how we can we achieve inner strength by detaching ourselves,’ added the artist. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHer series Pause and Play emphasises the importance of detachment and the need to build our inner strength. She added, ‘If we can learn to distance ourselves from the immediate surrounding, we can review our perceptions and transform our lives.”I am having an exhibition in Delhi after a hiatus of almost 12 years, my last three solo shows in 2003, 2005 and 2007 being in Mumbai. Since I am from Delhi, this is a special show for me; it’s almost like a homecoming exhibition,’ said the artist. ‘With the objective of creating an interface between Indian contemporary art and its various interpretations, Puja Kshatriya’s work is a vision, an interpretation, allowing the viewer to indulge in their imagination,’ said Ashwini Bahadur, founder of the Artspeaks India.Trying to innovate from the traditional style of painting, Puja uses blade scraping technique, where in two-three layers, oil colours are applied and then blade is used, to bring out the forms. The pressure while scraping is varied, bringing a sculptural effect to the figures.DETAILAt: Shridharani Gallery,Triveni Kala Sangam, 205, Tansen Marg On till: 12 November Timings: 11am to 7pm Phone: 23718833last_img read more

Mythology reinterpreted

first_img“I am a devotee of Goddess Durga and I believe in the feminine power she incorporates,” said Shobha Deepak Singh, producer and director of the ballet act Shree Durga performed at the ongoing Festival of Ballets at Kamani Auditorium on Tuesday. The dance reflected the necessity of emancipation of women in a time when cruelty against women is surpassing all limits. The divine presence of Goddess Durga took over the stage narrating a story from the past. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The act was set in mythological times when the boon, granted by the gods to their devotees, became nuisances and were misused. The dance emphasised upon the importance of bestowing power to women in proportion to men such that a balance is maintained and no evil rises which can cause destruction. Stree Shakti (feminine power) which rose after constant churning of power of the three gods Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh led the fight against Mahishasur. The whole episode aimed at restoration of balanced power between the genders. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIn the next scene the audiences witnessed the rise of Raktabeej, another asur who harasses the gods and whose every drop of blood gives rise to its clone. Kali  (the goddess of destruction) fought with Raktabeej. She drunk the blood of Raktabeej before it fell on the ground.  The whole scene displayed the sheer madness of someone high with power. It was when Shiva intervened by throwing himself on her feet, Kali’s anger could be controlled. The facial expressions of the actor playing Kali, portrayed the rage and anger of the goddess. The performance was magnificent right from the beginning as it started from the contemporary context where common people indulge in worshipping Durga on Durga Puja, a festival of Bengal.The choreography was an amalgamation of various classical dance forms and martial arts technique called Kalaripayattu which is one of the oldest fighting systems in existence. Altogether, it gave graceful body movements to fighting scenes and facial movements for emotions. Other forms of dance like – Bharatnatyam, Chhau, Kathakali and other folk dances were also amalgamated that left the audiences spellbound. “As this is a ballet, we have incorporated ingredients and elements from various dance forms of our country including folk dances,” said Shashidharan Nair, choreographer. The five-day festival that opened on May 8 with the play titled Meera have two more performances Kaalchakra and Kumar Sambhava that will be staged on May 15 and 16 respectively. Do mark your dates and head over for a ballet treat!last_img read more

The girl behind Who is Kalam

first_imgThe book titled Who is Kalam? may be intriguing but has a heart-warming story behind it. It is the story of a teenaged schoolgirl who posed a tough question to the former President. In turn, she was greeted with an answer that inspired her to become a scientist.It was in 2001, that Sudarkodi Sukumar, a 14-year-old from Tamil Nadu’s Vellore district, sent a question to Kalam in a Tamil monthly for children. She never knew that her question could inspire him so much that he would name a book after it.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Her question was: “Please rank yourself among the following: Scientist, Tamilian, human being and an Indian.” Kalam’s answer was: “One can find all three in a human being”.In 2003, Sukumar got an invitation to New Delhi for the release of the book Who is Kalam? A Good Human Being, which was dedicated to her. The book by Kalam’s aide R Ramanathan, about the personal side of the scientist-turned-Indian president, was released by the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe next day, Sukumar, along with her family were called by Kalam in the Rashtrapati Bhavan and the meeting changed her life. “I realised that one has to pursue the passion of one’s life. I used to read all his writings when I was in school,” she recalled.The title Who is Kalam? was suggested by the former president himself, according to K P R Nair, managing director of Konark Publishers, who published the book. “Though I suggested some titles for the book, Kalam himself came up with Who is Kalam. The question raised by the girl was etched in his memory,” Nair said.last_img read more

Monsoon Session of Assembly to kick off on Friday

first_imgKolkata: The Monsoon Session of the West Bengal Assembly is going to start from July 20. It will continue till July 31.The all-party meeting before the session was held on Wednesday. Senior leaders of all the political parties including Trinamool Congress, CPI(M) and BJP were present in the meeting.Senior Trinamool Congress leader and Parliamentary Affairs minister Partha Chatterjee and state Finance minister Amit Mitra were present in the meeting. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeIt has been learnt that some important bills, including one of the Correctional Administration department, will be placed in the Assembly in this session.Sources said that the matter related to the nomenclature of the state will also come up in the Assembly.It may be mentioned that on August 29 in 2016, the state Assembly had passed the resolution of renaming the state as “Bangla” and “Bengal” in English in a special session.Later, on September 2017, the state Cabinet had decided to go for only one name for the state. It has been learnt that the Centre has also urged the state government to suggest one name for all languages.The matter related to upgrading Krishnanath College in Murshidabad to a university, will also come up in the Assembly in this session.last_img read more

Iran deal blocks every pathway for Nweapon

first_imgPresident Barack Obama has strongly defended the landmark Iranian nuclear deal, saying it blocks every pathway for Tehran to acquire nuclear weapons and was in the interest of both the United States and Israel.Addressing the concerns of the Jewish community ahead of a crucial congressional vote next month, Obama in a webcast from the White House said, “this deal blocks every pathway that Iran might take in order to obtain a nuclear weapon.” Because of the stringency of the deal, a vast majority of experts on nuclear proliferation have endorsed this deal, he asserted. Obama on Friday said the world is more or less united, with some exceptions of Israel around the deal. Also Read – Nine hurt in accident at fireworks show in French resort“People have said that, well, Iran will cheat. They are not trustworthy. I keep on emphasising we do not trust Iran.Iran is antagonistic to the US. It is anti-Semitic. It has denied the Holocaust. It has called for the destruction of Israel. It is an unsavoury regime,” he said, adding that Iran is a regional power and not a superpower.“But this deal doesn’t rely on trust; it relies on verification and our capacity to catch them when they cheat and to respond vigorously if they do,” Obama said. Also Read – Pakistan Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanObama also acknowledged the support that most Jews have given him, saying, “I wouldn’t be sitting here if it weren’t for my friends and supporters in the Jewish community.” “Because of the unprecedented partnership we have with Israel, Israel has a much stronger military. Our Gulf partners spend eight times as much money as Iran does on their military,” he said.“So what we have done is, for the first 10 years, essentially restricted Iran’s capacity not just to weaponize nuclear power but we severely constrain any nuclear programme — peaceful or militarised.“After 10 years, they’re able to obtain some additional advanced centrifuges, but they continue to have to be carefully monitored in terms of the stockpiles that they produce,” the US President said.last_img read more

Incessant rain affects normal life in Kolkata

first_imgKolkata: Incessant rain affected normal life in the metropolis and adjoining districts today, as the Met department forecast continuous downpour till tomorrow morning. Continuous rain and waterlogging at different places in the city caused traffic snarls during morning rush hours. The Met department has forecast “continuous rainfall over the districts of Gangetic West Bengal with one or two spells of heavy shower in coastal districts, including Kolkata for next 24 hours.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life With the intensity of rain being higher in the northern outskirts of the city compared to the south, many low lying areas in Dum Dum, IT hub at Salt Lake’s Sector V and Rajarhat New Town were affected by waterlogging. Dum Dum recorded the highest rainfall of 118 mm till 11.30 am today from 8.30 am yesterday, the weatherman said. Alipore in the southern part of the city recorded 60 mm rainfall during the same period. Some of the important thoroughfares in the city, including Central Avenue, College Street and Park Street were waterlogged owing to the overnight rain. The continuous rain that caused waterlogging inconvenienced office-goers and students with traffic snarls delaying their movement. The weatherman has forecast that the intensity of rain in Gangetic West Bengal may reduce from tomorrow morning, but is likely to increase again from Saturday.last_img read more

Cultural extravaganza ends

first_imgThe city saw the best of theatre from around the world under one roof when the 18th edition of ‘Bharat Rang Mahotsav’ was held in the national Capital. From international to Indian plays, Delhiites witnessed amazing performances by theatre artists, who brought life into the plays written by renowned playwrights. The 18th edition of ‘Bharat Rang Mahotsav’ came to an end as the valedictory ceremony of the annual international theatre festival of National School of Drama’s was held on Sunday at Kamani Auditorium in the national Capital.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Dr Mahesh Sharma, Minister of State (independent charge), Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Minister of State for Civil Aviation, Government of India was the Chief Guest for the evening, while Mannu Bhandari, renowned Hindi writer was the Guest of Honour. Famous Pandwani artist Teejan Bai was the special guest and the ceremony was presided over by Ratan Thiyam, Chairman, National School of Drama Society. Prof. Waman Kendre, Director, National School of Drama was also present during the occasion. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixDuring his address, Dr Mahesh Sharma said: “National School of Drama is an institution of great importance to our country. The government has already earmarked a budget of Rs 180 crores for constructing the new building of NSD, and we are also hoping that the institute gets its status as an institute of national importance in the near future. We are very happy to see that the youth at this institution is actively participating to promote theatre.” Mannu Bhandari, renowned Hindi writer shared some wonderful anecdotes related to her experiences with National School of Drama and the theatre field and said that this is the time for the new generation to take forward the legacy.Famous Pandwani artist Teejan Bai said: “I congratulate National School of Drama for celebrating the art of theatre with such splendour. I wish that every artist of this country achieves great heights and promote the culture and heritage of India.”The 18th Bharat Rang Mahotsav, which was organised from February 1-21, was held across leading venues in the national Capital where best of plays from around the world were staged. The parallel festivals this year took place in Jammu, Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar and Thiruvananthapuram from February 3-14. Ratan Thiyam, Chairman, National School of Drama Society said: “It was an unforgettable experience of plays during the 21 days of the 18th Bharat Rang Mahotsav. As it concludes, I thank everyone for their wholehearted participation for this edition and hope that the 19th edition in the spring next year is an even better success.”Prof. Waman Kendre, Director, National School of Drama said: “The 18th edition of Bharat Rang Mahotsav saw over 80 plays from 11 countries (apart from India) being staged and I thank them for making this a truly memorable festival.”last_img read more